Ancient Civilizations: 2nd Dynasty Of Isin (#6 of 18) cover

Ancient Civilizations: 2nd Dynasty Of Isin (#6 of 18)

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The Kassite Dynasty ruled Babylonia following the fall of Hammurabi and was succeeded by the Second Dynasty of Isin, where the Babylonians experienced military success and cultural upheavals under Nebuchadnezzar I.
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Ancient Civilizations: 2nd Dynasty Of Isin (#6 of 18)

The Kassite Dynasty

The Kassite Dynasty ruled Babylonia following the fall of Hammurabi and was succeeded by the Second Dynasty of Isin, where the Babylonians experienced military success and cultural upheavals under Nebuchadnezzar.

Learning Objective

• Describe the key characteristics of the Second Dynasty of Isin

Kassite Dynasty (ca. 1507–1155 BC)

Image by MapMaster – Own work, GFDL

Kassite Dynasty (ca. 1507–1155 BC)

A map of the Babylonian Empire during the time of the Kassites, roughly the 13th century BC. This map shows the probable river courses and coastline at that time.

Key Points

• Following the collapse of the First Babylonian Dynasty under Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire entered a period of relatively weakened rule under the Kassites for 576 years. The Kassite Dynasty eventually fell itself due to the loss of territory and military weakness.

• The Kassites were succeeded by the Elamites, who themselves were conquered by Marduk-kabit-ahheshu, the founder of the Second Dynasty of Isin.

Key Points (Cont.)

• Nebuchadnezzar I was the most famous ruler of the Second Dynasty of Isin. He enjoyed military successes for the first part of his career, then turned to peaceful building projects in his later years.

• The Babylonian Empire suffered major blows to its power when Nebuchadnezzar's sons lost a series of wars with Assyria, and their successors effectively became vassals of the Assyrian king. Babylonia descended into a period of chaos in 1026 BCE.

Terms

Kassite Dynasty

an ancient Near Eastern people who controlled Babylonia for nearly 600 years after the fall of the First Babylonian Dynasty.

Assyrian Empire

a major Semitic empire of the Ancient Near East which existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries.

Elamites

an ancient civilization centered in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran.

Nebuchadnezzar I

the most famous ruler of the Second Dnyasty of Isin who sacked the Elamite capital of Susa and devoted himself to peaceful building projects after securing Babylonia's borders.

Terms (Cont.)

• Kudurru

a type of stone document used as boundary stones and as records of land grants to vassals by the Kassites in ancient Babylonia.

• Marduk-kabit-ahheshu

overthrower of the Elamites and the founder of the Second Dynasty of Isin.

The Kudurru of Nebuchadnezzar

Image by L. W. King

The Kudurru of Nebuchadnezzar

Kudurru of Nabû-kudurrī-uṣur granting LAK-ti Marduk freedom from taxation for services rendered during his invasion of Elam, BM 90858.

Babylonian boundary-stones and memorial tablets in the British Museum, No. LXXXIII

The Fall Of The Kassite Dynasty

Following the collapse of the First Babylonian Dynasty under Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire entered a period of relatively weakened rule under the Kassites for 576 years -

- the longest dynasty in Babylonian history. The Kassite Dynasty eventually fell itself due to the loss of territory, military weakness, which resulted in the evident reduction in literacy and culture. In 1157 BCE, Babylon was conquered by Shutruk-Nahhunte of Elam.

The Second Dynasty Of Isin

The Elamites did not remain in control of Babylonia long, and Marduk-kabit-ahheshu (1155-1139 BCE) established the Second Dynasty of Isin.

This dynasty was the very first native Akkadian-speaking south Mesopotamian dynasty to rule Babylon, and was to remain in power for some 125 years. The new king successfully drove out the Elamites and prevented any possible Kassite revival.

Later in his reign, he went to war with Assyria and had some initial success before suffering defeat at the hands of the Assyrian king Ashur-Dan I. He was succeeded by his son Itti-Marduk-balatu in 1138 BCE, who was followed a year later by Ninurta-nadin-shumi in 1137 BCE.

Nebuchadnezzar I

Nebuchadnezzar I (1124-1103 BCE) was the most famous ruler of the Second Dynasty of Isin.

He not only fought and defeated the Elamites and drove them from Babylonian territory but invaded Elam itself, sacked the Elamite capital Susa, and recovered the sacred statue of Marduk that had been carried off from Babylon.

In the later years of his reign, he devoted himself to peaceful building projects and securing Babylonia's borders. His construction activities are memorialized in building inscriptions of the Ekituš-ḫegal-tila, the temple of Adad in Babylon, and on bricks from the temple of Enlil in Nippur.

Anu-Adad Temple

Author Unknown

Anu-Adad Temple

Stage towers of Anu-Adad temple at Ashub

Builders and Craftsman

A late Babylonian inventory lists his donations of gold vessels in Ur.

The earliest of three extant economic texts is dated to Nebuchadnezzar's eighth year and form the only existing commercial records together with two kudurrus and a stone memorial tablet. These artifacts evidence the dynasty's power as builders, craftsmen and managers of the business of the empire.

Successors

Nebuchadnezzar was succeeded by his two sons, firstly Enlil-nadin-apli (1103–1100 BCE), who lost territory to Assyria, and then Marduk-nadin-ahhe (1098-1081 BCE), who also went to war with Assyria.

Some initial success in these conflicts gave way to catastrophic defeat at the hands of Tiglath-pileser I who annexed huge swathes of Babylonian territory, thereby further expanding the Assyrian Empire. Following this military defeat, a terrible famine gripped Babylon, which invited attacks from Semitic Aramean tribes from the west.

Continuous War

In 1072 BCE, King Marduk-shapik-zeri signed a peace treaty with Ashur-bel-kala of Assyria.

His successor, Kadašman-Buriaš, however, did not maintain his predacessor's peaceful in tentions, and his actions prompted the Assyrian king to invade Babylonia and place his own man on the throne.

Assyrian domination continued until c. 1050 BCE, with the two reigning Babylonian kings regarded generally as vassals of Assyria. Assyria descended into a period of civil war after 1050 BCE, which allowed Babylonia to once more largely free itself from the Assyrian yoke for a few decades.

Babylonian Boundary Stone

Anonymous, Walters Art Museum, Public Domain

Babylonian Boundary Stone

A "kudurru," the Akkadian term for boundary stone, combines images of the king, gods, and divine symbols with a text recording royal grants of land and tax exemption to an individual.

This example was found at the temple of Esagila, the primary sanctuary of the god Marduk. The king Marduk-nadin-ahe is depicted with his left hand raised in front of his face; he wears the tall Babylonian feathered crown and an elaborately decorated garment with a honeycomb pattern. On the top are a sun disk, star, crescent moon, and scorpion, representing deities who witnessed the land grant and tax exemption. A snake-dragon deity emerges from a row of altars shaped like temple façades along the back.

Period Of Chaos

However, Babylonia soon began to suffer repeated incursions from Semitic nomadic peoples migrating from the west, and large swathes of Babylonia were appropriated and occupied by these newly arrived Arameans, Chaldeans and Suteans.

Starting in 1026 and lasting till 911 BCE, Babylonia descended into a period of chaos.

Question

Which of the following is an accomplishment of Nebuchadnezzar I and his sons?

A Nebuchadnezzar I devoted himself to peaceful projects late in his reign.

B Babylonia collapsed due to civil war during the reign of King Kadašman-Buriaš.

C Nebuchadnezzar I repelled Elam's attack, but could not take the capital of Susa.

D Babylonia was under the yoke of Assyrian rule for over a century

Answer

A Nebuchadnezzar I devoted himself to peaceful projects late in his reign.