The Tomb Of The Unknown Soldier cover

The Tomb Of The Unknown Soldier

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The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery stands atop a hill overlooking Washington, D.C.
On March 4, 1921, Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from World War I in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater.
West of the World War I Unknown are the crypts of unknowns from World War II, Korea and Vietnam. How were these Unknowns chosen? Have any ever been identified?


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The Tomb Of The Unknown Soldier

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

at Arlington National Cemetery stands atop a hill overlooking Washington, D.C.

On March 4, 1921, Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from World War I in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater.

The white marble sarcophagus has a flat-faced form and is relieved at the corners and along the sides by neo-classic pilasters, or columns, set into the surface.

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

Soldiers assigned to the 3rd Infantry Regiment, The Old Guard,

conduct a change of guard at the Tomb of the Unknown at Arlington National Cemetery, Va., Nov. 15, 2013

The Tomb of the Unknown has been guarded around the clock for more than three quarters of a century, specifically since 1937, and since 1948 by members of the 3rd Inf. Regiment's Old Guard regardless of the weather conditions.

(National Guard photos by Staff Sgt. Joseph Rivera Rebolledo, Puerto Rico National Guard Public Affairs Office)

Public Domain

Honored Glory

Sculpted into the east panel which faces Washington, D.C., are three Greek figures representing Peace, Victory, and Valor.

The six wreaths, three sculpted on each side, represent the six major campaigns of World War I. Inscribed on the back of the Tomb are the words:

Here rests in honored glory an American soldier known but to God

The Tomb sarcophagus was placed above the grave of the Unknown Soldier of World War I. West of the World War I Unknown are the crypts of unknowns from World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Those three graves are marked with white marble slabs flush with the plaza.

The Crypts Of Unknowns

The Crypts Of Unknowns

From World War II, Korea And Vietnam

The Unknown of World War I

On Memorial Day, 1921, four unknowns were exhumed from four World War I American cemeteries in France.

U.S. Army Sgt. Edward F. Younger, who was wounded in combat, highly decorated for valor and received the Distinguished Service Medal in "The Great War, the war to end all wars," selected the Unknown Soldier of World War I from four identical caskets at the city hall in Chalons-sur-Marne, France, Oct. 24, 1921.

White Roses

Sgt. Younger selected the unknown by placing a spray of white roses on one of the caskets. He chose the third casket from the left.

The chosen unknown soldier was transported to the United States aboard the USS Olympia. Those remaining were interred in the Meuse Argonne Cemetery, France.

The Unknown Soldier lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda from his arrival in the United States until Armistice Day, 1921. On Nov. 11, 1921, President Warren G. Harding officiated at the interment ceremonies at the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery.

Guard Facing The Tomb

Guard Facing The Tomb

Guard Faces Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

Arlington National Cemetery

2013-08-24

Image by Tim Evanson

(CC BY-SA 2.0)

The Unknown of World War II and Korea

On Aug. 3, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill to select and pay tribute to the unknowns of World War II and Korea.

The selection ceremonies and the interment of these unknowns took place in 1958. The World War II Unknown was selected from remains exhumed from cemeteries in Europe, Africa, Hawaii and the Philippines.

Two unknowns from World War II, one from the European Theater and one from the Pacific Theater, were placed in identical caskets and taken aboard the USS Canberra, a guided-missile cruiser resting off the Virginia capes. Navy Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette, then the Navy's only active-duty Medal of Honor recipient, selected the Unknown Soldier of World War II. The remaining casket received a solemn burial at sea.

The Unknown Of WWII

The Unknown Of WWII

"Hospitalman William R. Charette,

who received the Medal of Honor for Korean War heroism,

selects the Unknown Serviceman of World War II, during ceremonies on board USS Canberra (CAG-2), 26 May 1958. The other World War II Unknown Serviceman candidate's casket is at left, with the Unknown Serviceman of the Korean War in the middle.

After completion of the selection ceremonies, the World War II and Korean War Unknown Servicemen were carried to Washington, D.C., for burial at Arlington National Cemetery. The other World War II Unknown was buried at sea."

Image by U.S. Navy

Public Domain

Lying In State

Lying In State

Four unknown Americans who died in the Korean War were disinterred from the National Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii.

Army Master Sgt. Ned Lyle made the final selection. Both caskets arrived in Washington May 28, 1958, where they lay in the Capitol Rotunda until May 30.

Flag draped coffins bearing the remains of two unknown soldiers from World War II and the Korean conflict lie in state in the Capitol Rotunda in May 1958.

Image by Architect of the Capitol

May 30, 1958

The morning of May 30, 1958, they were carried on caissons to Arlington National Cemetery.

President Eisenhower awarded each the Medal of Honor, and the Unknowns were interred in the plaza beside their World War I comrade.

The Funeral

The Funeral

President Dwight D. Eisenhower places a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier of World War I

Interment ceremonies for the Unknown Servicemen of World War II and the Korean Conflict, at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Old Guard Museum

(CC BY 2.0)

The Unknown of Vietnam

The Unknown service member from the Vietnam War was designated by Medal of Honor recipient U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Maj. Allan Jay Kellogg Jr. during a ceremony at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, May 17, 1984.

The Vietnam Unknown was transported aboard the USS Brewton to Alameda Naval Base, Calif. The remains were sent to Travis Air Force Base, Calif., May 24. The Vietnam Unknown arrived at Andrews Air Force Base, Md., the next day.

Many Vietnam veterans and President and Mrs. Ronald Reagan visited the Vietnam Unknown in the U.S. Capitol. An Army caisson carried the Vietnam Unknown from the Capitol to the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day, May 28, 1984. President Reagan presided over the funeral, and presented the Medal of Honor to the Vietnam Unknown.

President Ronald Reagan

President Ronald Reagan

President Ronald Reagan presents the flag from the casket of the Unknown Serviceman of the Vietnam Era

to Ray Costanza, superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery, during the interment ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknowns in the cemetery, 5/28/1984

Image by Mickey Sanborn

Department of Defense

Public Domain

Keeping Faith

The president also acted as next of kin by accepting the interment flag at the end of the ceremony.

The interment flags of all Unknowns at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier are on view in the Memorial Display Room. The Memorial Bridge leading from Washington, D.C., to Virginia is lined with a joint-service cordon as the remains of the Vietnam War Unknown are taken by motor escort to Arlington National Cemetery for interment in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

The remains of the Vietnam Unknown were exhumed May 14, 1998. Based on mitochondrial DNA testing, DoD scientists identified the remains as those of Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie, who was shot down near An Loc, Vietnam, in 1972. It has been decided that the crypt that contained the remains of the Vietnam Unknown will remain vacant.

The crypt cover has been replaced with one that has the inscription “Honoring and Keeping Faith with America’s Missing Servicemen, 1958-1975.”