Animal Locomotion: From Antiquity to the 21st Century cover

Animal Locomotion: From Antiquity to the 21st Century

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We have all marveled at the gracefulness of a cat leaping in the air, the swift movements of a hummingbird’s wings, the determined salmon swimming up river, the incredible precision of the marching feet of a millipede and the power of a galloping horse. Animals exhibit all types of movement- they walk, run, creep, hop, jump, fly, glide, paddle, and swim. By studying nature and observing animal movement scientists can better understand biomechanics, physiology, evolution, physics, and engineering.

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Animal Locomotion: From Antiquity to the 21st Century

The 19th Century

When we think about the study of animal locomotion, the late 19th century photographer Eadweard Muybridge’s Animal Locomotion series comes to mind.

His signature photographic series of the galloping horse commissioned by Leland Stanford is the most well-known, but he captured the movement of many more animals which you can find published in Animal Locomotion.

Eadweard Muybridge

Eadweard Muybridge

Eadweard Muybridge - Animal Locomotion, Plate 686.

Public Domain

The Movement of Animals

Many suggest that the first study of animal locomotion began in antiquity with Aristotle of Stagira (384- 322 B.C.), though I would argue that Paleolithic cave paintings, such as those found in Lascaux, exhibit the beginning of our fascination on how animals move.

Aristotle’s De Animalbus (De historia animalium/History of Animals, De partibus animalium/Parts of Animals, De generatione animalium/ Generation of Animals) and his De motu animalium/ Movement of Animals discuss theories of voluntary animal motion, contending that motion originates from the heart.

Scientists and Thinkers

The Greek physician Galen of Pergamum (A.D 129-216) did not agree with Aristotle’s theory.

He argued that motion came from the brain, which acts like an engine that moves the nerves and muscles into motion. Scientists and thinkers during the Middle Ages focused their attention on re-examining Aristotle’s treatise on animals with new translations and commentaries. To get an idea of the tone and tenor of medieval animal locomotion theories, see Albertus Magnus’ (119?- 1280).

Study of Horses

Study of Horses

By Leonardo Di Vinci, circa 1490.

Public Domain

Leonardo Di Vinci

Also worth mentioning is the work of the great visionary Leonardo Da Vinci (1452- 1519) who bridged science and art with his study of animals in motion, most notably the Codex on the Flight of Birds(1505-1506).

Another significant contribution to the study of animal locomotion can be found in De Motu Animalium by Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679), who is often credited as the father of biomechanics. He studied the movement of living animals and showed that movement of the body is similar to a machine and operates by mechanical laws. For an English translation of Borelli’s seminal work De Motu Animalium (1680-81).

Four Feet and Feathers

French physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904), who was a contemporary of Muybridge, is another scientist who studied animal locomotion.

Marey and Muybridge both used the camera as a scientific instrument to study animal locomotion and are credited as the pioneers of ‘instantaneous’ photography and chronophotography (multiple exposures on a single plate). Marey’s work on Animal Mechanism: A Treatise on Terrestrial and Aerial Locomotion (NewYork, 1874) /La Machine Animale, Locomotion Terrestre et Aerienne (Paris, 1873) and Movement (New York, 1895)/ Le Mouvement (Paris, 1894) presented new ways to investigate animal locomotion. His research was influential. In fact, the Wright Brothers used Marey’s study on the flight of birds to help conceive apparatus for human flight.

Friendly Rivalries

James Bell Pettigrew (1832-1908), a comparative anatomist from Scotland, has also added to our understanding of animal locomotion, especially in regard to the flight of insects, birds, and bats.

As one can imagine, there was a rivalry with Marey, especially in regard to research on flight. After all was said and done, they both came to similar conclusions. Pettigrew’s Animal Locomotion, or, Walking, Swimming, and Flying, with a Dissertation on Aëronautics (London) was first published in 1873 and a three volume set Design In Nature (London, New York) was published posthumously in 1908- volume three is devoted to Animal Locomotion.

Dog Days

Dog Days

Public Domain

Published Works

Zoologist Sir James Gray (1891-1975) spent over forty years studying animal locomotion and was influential in building a department of zoology at the University of Cambridge.

He is also known for his pioneering work with cytology/study of cells (Text-book of Experimental Cytology, 1931) and as one of the founding editors of the Journal of Experimental Biology (1925-54). His 1951 Royal Institution’s Christmas Lectures were published in the book How Animals Move (Cambridge University Press, 1953) and his book Animal Locomotion (London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968) appeals to the biologist, but also to the physicist and the engineer.

Paving the Way

Another important zoologist who has enriched our understanding of the mechanics of animal and human movement (also dinosaurs) is Robert McNeil Alexander (1934-).

He is a prolific author and has published over 280 papers, as well as a variety of books such as Human Bones: A Scientific and Pictorial Investigation (New York, Pi, c2005), Principles of Animal Locomotion (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2003), Optima for Animals (Princeton, Princeton University Press, c1996), Exploring Biomechanics: Animals in Motion (New York, Scientific American Library, c1992), Dynamics of Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Giants (New York, Columbia University Press, c1989), Locomotion of Animals (Glasgow, Blackie, 1982), and Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion (London, Chapman and Hall, 1977).

Strength in Motion

Strength in Motion

Buffalo galloping. Work by Eadweard Muybridge.

Public Domain

Moving Forward

Even though we have over 2,000 years of animal locomotion studies under our belt, there is still much to learn and discover about the movement of animals.

Today’s researchers of locomotion are seeking an integrated approach that draws on various fields and specializations from the molecular to mechanical and from the physical to the mathematical. By applying highly-sophisticated mathematical and computational methods, we can better understand the movement of animals through water and air, which in turn can help improve vehicle designs.

Article courtesy of The Library of Congress.