Italy's Renaissance 10: Florence Late 1400's cover

Italy's Renaissance 10: Florence Late 1400's

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During the Early Renaissance, Italy was divided into many city-states (Florence, Milan, Veniceetc.), each with their own form of government. There are several reasons for the extraordinary rebirth of the Renaissance in Florence at this time. Successfully defeating several would-be conquerors in the early 15th century, Florentines imagined themselves as the "New Rome" -- in other words, as the heirs to the Ancient Roman Republic, prepared to sacrifice for the cause of freedom and liberty. This emphasis on freedom and individuality was key to the cultural and intellectual growth that defined the Renaissance. Quiz question included!





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Italy's Renaissance 10: Florence Late 1400's

Florence - Late 1400s

Learning Objective

Explain the Florentine ideals that gave rise to the Renaissance and Brunelleschi's unique role therein

Terms

city-state An independent or autonomous entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as a part of another local government.

exedra A semicircular recess, with stone benches, used as a place for discussion.

View Of Florence

View Of Florence

Public Domain Image

Key Points

1 The wealth of Florence's upper classes contributed profoundly to the advancement of arts and culture in the city.

2 Florence viewed itself as heir to the Roman Empire, in part for the shared emphasis on freedom and liberty.

3 Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the great artistic talents in Florence at this time, renowned for his knowledge of mathematics and engineering, as well as his artistic abilities.

4 Completing the dome of the Florence Cathedral was Brunelleschi's major life work.

Accumulation of Wealth

During the Early Renaissance, Italy was divided into many city-states (Florence, Milan, Venice etc.), each with its own form of government.

There are several reasons for the extraordinary rebirth of the Renaissance in Florence at this time. Tremendous wealth accumulated here during this period among a growing middle and upper class of merchants and bankers.

With this accumulation of wealth, banking and trade came the desire to enjoy the pleasures of life on Earth -- not just an exclusive focus on the hereafter – resulting in a surge in artistic, literary and scientific investigation.

Glorification of Mary

Glorification of Mary

Artist Sandro Botticelli

Public Domain Image

The Ideal

Florence saw itself as the ideal city-state, a place where the freedom of the individual was guaranteed, and where many citizens had the right to participate in the government.

Successfully defeating several would-be conquerors in the early 15th century, Florentines imagined themselves as the "New Rome" -- in other words, as the heirs to the Ancient Roman Republic, prepared to sacrifice for the cause of freedom and liberty. This emphasis on freedom and individuality was key to the cultural and intellectual growth that defined the Renaissance.

Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance.

He is perhaps most famous for his engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering, and even ship design

He is credited with the rediscovery of the principles of linear perspective, known to ancient Greeks and Romans, but lost during the Middle Ages. With these principles, one can paint or draw using a single vanishing point, toward which all lines on the same plane appear to converge, and objects appear smaller as they recede into the distance. His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence, Italy.

Brunelleschi's Dome

Brunelleschi's Dome

Brunelleschi dedicated much of his life to the completion of the Florence Cathedral's dome.

Photo Courtesy Flickr User Frank K.

(CC BY 2.0)

New Ideas

The dome, the lantern (built 1446–ca.1461), and the exedra (built 1439-1445) of Santa Maria del Fiore, the new cathedral of the city, occupied most of Brunelleschi's life.

When the building was designed in the previous century, no one had any idea about how such a dome was to be built, given that no dome of that size had been built since antiquity.

Brunelleschi's success can be attributed to no small degree to his technical and mathematical genius. He invented a new hoisting machine for raising the masonry needed for the dome, and was also issued one of the first patents for the hoist in an attempt to prevent theft of his ideas. Brunelleschi used more than 4 million bricks in the construction of the dome.

Question 1

Which is following was NOT an area in which Brunelleschi excelled?

A architecture

B sculpture

C ship design

D painting

Answer

D Painting

Originally posted to Boundless

(CC BY-SA 4.0)

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