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Ancient Civilizations: Egypt - The Old Kingdom #8 of 18

To begin with section 1, please click here.
The Old Kingdom of Egypt, spanning the Third to Eighth Dynasties, saw prolific construction of pyramids, but also declined due to civil instability, resource shortages, and a disastrous drop in rainfall.
Includes two Quiz questions to lock in your new-found smarts!

Category: History

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Italy's Renaissance 06: Painting Post-Masaccio

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Masaccio is widely regarded as the first Renaissance painter of the Italian Quattrocento, and despite the brevity of his career, had the most profound influence on his successors. Florentine painting greatly increased in range and richness after Masaccio's death, and fifteenth-century artists adopted and built on the style and techniques that he had introduced to Italian painting, most notably the drive towards naturalism, and the use of linear perspective, sfumato, and chiaroscuro. Artists also began to focus even more on proportional and anatomically accurate representations of the human body and naturalistic landscapes.
This NoteStream includes two quiz questions at the end so you can show-off your new knowledge!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 05: Florence Painting

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Fifteenth-century Florence was the birthplace of Renaissance painting, which moved away from the comparative flatness and stylized nature of Gothic art to focus on accurate representations of the human body and naturalistic landscapes. Florentine painting received a new lease of life in the early fifteenth century, when the use of perspective was formalized by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi and adopted by painters as an artistic technique. This development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts.
Two quiz questions included!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 04: Florence Sculpture

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Commonly known as "the cradle of the Renaissance," 15th-century Florence was among the largest and richest cities in Europe and its wealthiest residents were enthusiastic patrons of the arts, particularly sculpture. Departing from the International Gothic style that had previously dominated in Italy, and drawing from the styles of classical antiquity, Renaissance sculpture originated in Florence and was consciously influenced by ancient Roman sculpture. Quiz question at the end to show you got it!
Originally posted by Boundless (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Category: Arts

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Ancient Civilizations: Babylonian Culture (#7 of 18)

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Hallmarks of Babylonian culture include mudbrick architecture, extensive astronomical records and logs, diagnostic medical handbooks, and translations of Sumerian literature.

Category: History

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Italy's Renaissance 03: Florence Architecture

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The Quattrocento or the 15th century in Florence was marked by the development of the Renaissance style of architecture, which represented a conscious revival and development of ancient Greek and Roman elements. The rules of Renaissance architecture were first formulated and put into execution in 15th-century Florence, whose buildings subsequently served as an inspiration to architects throughout Italy and Western Europe.
The Renaissance style of architecture emerged in Florence not as a slow evolution from preceding styles but rather as a conscious development put into motion by architects seeking to revive a golden age.
Only one question at the end!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 02: Humanism

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Humanism, also known as Renaissance humanism, was an activity of reform engaged in by scholars, writers and civic leaders in 14th and early 15th century Italy, which later spread to the rest of Europe becoming known as the Renaissance.
Humanists sought to create a citizenry (frequently including women) able to speak and write with eloquence and thus able to engage the civic life of their communities. This was to be accomplished through the study of the "studia humanitatis" or the "humanities": grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 01: Introduction

The Art of the Italian Renaissance was influential throughout Europe for centuries. In this introduction, we'll cover some key points and define some of the specific techniques used. Upon completion, you'll be able to discuss the work and influence of Botticelli and generalize the art and periodization of the Italian Renaissance.
Oh - and there's a three question quiz at the end to make sure you got it! Good luck!

Category: Arts

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Ancient Civilizations: 2nd Dynasty Of Isin (#6 of 18)

The Kassite Dynasty ruled Babylonia following the fall of Hammurabi and was succeeded by the Second Dynasty of Isin, where the Babylonians experienced military success and cultural upheavals under Nebuchadnezzar I.
One quiz question to show off what you learned!

Category: History

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Ancient Civilizations: Babylonia (#5 of 18)

Following the collapse of the Akkadians, the Babyloninan Empire flourished under Hammurabi who conquered many surrounding peoples and empires, in addition to developing an extensive code of law and establishing Babylon as a "holy city" of southern Mesopotamia.
One quiz question, so you can show off what you learned!

Category: History

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Ancient Civilizations: Akkadian Life (#4 of 18)

The Akkadian empire had a monarchical form of government which relied on important alliances and an economy that supported high amounts of agricultural surplus, which led to many cultural achievements in language, literature, and bureaucracy. It formed a formed a "classical standard" with which all future Mesopotamian states compared themselves.
During the 3rd millennium BCE, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Sumerian literature continued in rich development during the Akkadian period.
And we've got two quiz questions to secure your new-found smarts!

Category: History

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Ancient Civilizations: Akkadian Dynasties (03 of 18)

The Akkadian Empire was an ancient Semitic empire centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region in ancient Mesopotamia, which united all the indigenous Akkadian speaking Semites and the Sumerian speakers under one rule within a multilingual empire. The Akkadian Empire controlled Mesopotamia, the Levant, and parts of Iran.
The Akkadian Empire flourished in the 24th and 22nd centuries BCE ruled by Sargon and Naram-Sin, but eventually collapsed in 2154 BCE due to the invasion of barbarian peoples and large-scale climatic changes.
Includes one quiz question to secure your new found smarts!

Category: History

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Ancient Civilizations: River Valleys (02 of 18)

Rivers were attractive locations for the first civilizations because they provided a steady supply of drinking water and made the land fertile for growing crops. Moreover, goods and people could be transported easily, and the people in these civilizations could fish and hunt the animals that came to drink water.
Include one quiz question so you can show-off your new smarts!

Category: History

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Ancient Civilizations: The Rise Of Civilization (01 of 18)

The first humans evolved in Africa during the Paleolithic Era, or Stone Age, which spans the period of history from 2.5 million to 20,000 years ago. By the end of the Lower Paleolithic, members of the hominid family were living in what is now China, western Indonesia, and, in Europe, around the Mediterranean and as far north as England, southern Germany, and Bulgaria. Their further northward expansion may have been limited by the lack of control of fire: studies of cave settlements in Europe indicate no regular use of fire prior to 300,000-400,000 years ago.
When did humans first produce the earliest works of art and engage in religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual? What other factors drove the early evolution of these ancient peoples?
Includes a quick 3 question quiz to make sure you've got your 'lithics straight!

Category: History

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Italy's Renaissance 07: Urbino

Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro. It is notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico III da Montefeltro, the duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482. We'll explore the Palazzo Ducale and the Duomo di Urbino, and learn about Duke Federico III da Montefeltro. Quiz question at the end to lock in your new knowledge!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 08: Mantua

The City of Mantua, located in the northern Italian plain, was traditionally a center of cloth manufacture. On August 16, 1328, the Bonacolsi family was overthrown in a revolt backed by the House of Gonzaga. The Gonzagas built new city walls with five gates and renovated the architecture of the city in the 14th century, but the political situation in the city did not settle until the third ruling Gonzaga, Ludovico Gonzaga, eliminated his relatives, seizing power for himself.
During the Renaissance, the Gonzaga family softened their despotic rule and raised the level of culture and refinement in Mantua. Because of the city's wealth and the Gonzaga support of arts and letters, the Mantuan court became one of the most brilliant in Italy.
Two Quiz questions at the end!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 09: Rome and the Papal States

In the latter half of the 15th century, the seat of the Italian Renaissance moved from Florence to Rome. Because the Papacy wanted to surpass the grandeur of other Italian cities, the popes built increasingly extravagant churches, bridges, town squares, and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity), and Piazza Navona.
Rome became a center of Renaissance culture in duing this period, and its Pope-Kings were important patrons of the arts.
Two Quiz Questions included!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 10: Florence Late 1400's

During the Early Renaissance, Italy was divided into many city-states (Florence, Milan, Veniceetc.), each with their own form of government. There are several reasons for the extraordinary rebirth of the Renaissance in Florence at this time. Successfully defeating several would-be conquerors in the early 15th century, Florentines imagined themselves as the "New Rome" -- in other words, as the heirs to the Ancient Roman Republic, prepared to sacrifice for the cause of freedom and liberty. This emphasis on freedom and individuality was key to the cultural and intellectual growth that defined the Renaissance. Quiz question included!

Category: Arts

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Italy's Renaissance 11: Venice

In the latter years of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving, and influential art scene. Considered to bring a primacy of color over line, the Venetian tradition begun by Bellini was seen to contrast with Mannerism, which was prevalent in much of Italy. The Venetian style is viewed as greatly influencing the subsequent development of painting. Two Quiz Questions - and you'll have complete this Series! Congratulations!

Category: Arts

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